Hi! You need to Login or Create an Account to see all the article content on this page

Resources And References

This website is a product of more than just my own opinion; it is the result of the synthesis of hundreds of sources. I am a nerd for primary research and hack and analyze the research into a format that is more practical and user-friendly. By reading through Body Language Project, you will gain the most useful and practical information derived from the resources listed below.

I am grateful for the contributions that these scientists have made toward the study of nonverbal communication and nonverbal behaviour: body language.


Abe, N., M. Suzuki, E. Mori, M. Itoh, and T. Fujii. 2007. Deceiving others: distinct neural responses of the prefrontal cortex and amygdale in simple fabrication and deception with social interactions. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 19: 287-295.

Adolphs, Ralph A. 2006. Landmark study finds that when we look at sad faces, the size of the pupil we look at influences the size of our own pupil Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. 1(1): 3-4

Akehurst, L., G. Kohnken, A. Vrij, and R. Bull. 1996. Lay persons’ and police officers’
beliefs regarding deceptive behaviour. Applied Cognitive Psychology 10: 461-471.

Aiello, J. 1977. A further look at equilibrium theory. Visual interaction as a function of
interpersonal distance. Environmental Psychology & Nonverbal Behavior, 1: 122-140.

Andrea Kleinsmith P. Ravindra De Silva Nadia Bianchi-Berthouze. 2006. Cross-cultural differences in recognizing affect from body posture. Source: Interacting with computers. 18 (6): 1371 -1389

Ashton-James, C., R. B. van Baaren, T. L. Chartrand, J. Decety, and J. Karremans. 2007. Mimicry and me: the impact of mimicry on self-construal. Social Cognition 25 (4): 518-535.

Appelbaum, P.S. The new lie detectors: Neuroscience, deception, and the courts. Psychiatric Services. 2007. 58: 460-462.

Argyle, M. 1988. Bodily communication (2nd ed.). London: Methuen.

Argyle, Michael; Lefebvre, Luc; Cook, Mark 1974. The meaning of five patterns of gaze.
European Journal of Social Psychology. 4(2): 125-136.

Argyle, M., and Ingham, R. 1972. Gaze, mutual gaze, and proximity. Semiotica, 1, 32–49.

Argyle, M. The Psychology of Interpersonal Behaviour. London: Penguin Books, 1967.

Argyle, M. and Cook, M. Gaze and Mutual Gaze. London: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

Anat Rafaeli; Jane Dutton; Celia V Harquail; Stephanie Mackie-Lewis. Navigating by attire: The use of dress by female administrative employees. Academy of management journal. 1997. 40 (1): 9-45.

Allan Mazur; Eugene Rosa; Mark Faupel; Joshua Heller; Russell Leen; Blake Thurman. Physiological Aspects of Communication Via Mutual Gaze. The American Journal of Sociology. 1980; 86(1): 50-74.

Aziz-Zadeh L, Iacoboni M, Zaidel E, Wilson S, Mazziotta J. 2004. Left hemisphere motor facilitation in response to manual action sounds. European Journal of Neuroscience, 19 (9): 2609–2612.


Barber N. 1995. The evolutionary psychology of physical attractiveness: sexual selection and human morphology. Ethology and Sociobiology 16: 395-424.

Buss, D. M. 1988. The evolution of human intrasexual competition: tactics of mate attraction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54: 616-628.

Benedict, M. E., and J. Hoag. 2004. Seating location in large lectures: are seating preferences or location related to course performance? Journal of Economic Education 35 (3): 215.

Buss, D.M. 1989. Sex differences in human mate preferences: evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12: 1-49.

Breed, G., Christiansen, E., & Larson, D. 1972. Effect of lecturer’s gaze direction upon
teaching effectiveness. Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 2: 115.

Beebe, S.A., Beebe, S.J., Redmond, M.V. 2008. Interpersonal Communication: 5th Edition. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

Bailenson, J. N. & Yee, N. 2005. Digital Chameleons: Automatic assimilation of nonverbal gestures in immersive virtual environments. Psychological Science, 16: 814-819.

Bailenson, J.N. & Yee, N. (in press). Virtual interpersonal touch: Haptic interaction and copresence in collaborative virtual environments. International Journal of Multimedia Tools and Applications.

Becker, F. D., R. Sommer, J. Bee, and B. Oxley. 1973. College classroom ecology. Sociometry 36 (4): 514-525.

Beatrice de Gelder. 2006. Towards the neurobiology of emotional body language. Source: Nature reviews. Neuroscience. 7 (3): 242 -249.

Birdwhistell, R. L. 1970. Kinesics and context. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Bard, Kim A; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Costall, Alan; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro. 2005. Group Differences in the Mutual Gaze of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes). Developmental Psychology. 41(4): 616-624.

Brooks, C. I., Church, M. A., & Fraser, L. 1986. Effects of duration of eye contact on judgments of personality characteristics. Journal of Social Psychology. 126: 71–78.

Bradley, Margaret M; Codispoti, Maurizio; Sabatinelli, Dean; Lang, Peter J. 2001. Emotion and motivation II: Sex differences in picture processing Emotion. 1(3): 300-319

Brandt, David R. 1980. A systemic approach to the measurement of dominance in human face-to-face interaction Source: Communication quarterly. 28 (1):31-43.

Bressler, Eric R.; Balshine, Sigal 2006. The influence of humor on desirability.
Evolution and Human Behavior. 27(1): 29-39.

Bressler, E.R.; Martin, R.A.; Balshine, S. 2006. Evolution and Human Behavior. Production and appreciation of humor as sexually selected traits. 27 (2):

Blairy, S., P. Herrera, and U. Hess. 1999. Mimicry and the judgment of emotional facial expressions. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. 23 (1): 5-41.

Burgress R. and C. Baldassarre. 2006. Ultimate guide to poker tells: devastate opponents by reading body language, table talk, chip moves, and much more. Chicago, Triumph Books.

Brown, Clifford E.; Dovidio, John F.; Ellyson, Steve L. 1990. Reducing Sex Differences in Visual Displays of Dominance: Knowledge is Power. Personality And Social Psychology Bulletin. 16(2): 358-368.

Burg, A. 1968. Lateral visual field as related to age and sex. Journal of Applied Psychology. 52: 10–15.

Brockner, J; B. Pressman, J. Cabitt and P. Moran. 1982. Nonverbal intimacy, sex, and compliance: A field study, Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 6: 253–258.

Barry, Patrick L., 2007. Talk to the Hand. Science News. 171 (18):

Bohm. 1997. Effects of interpersonal touch, degree of justification, and sex of participant on compliance with a request. The Journal of social psychology. 137: 460-469.


Cashdan, E. 1993. Attracting mates: Effects of paternal investment on mate attraction strategies. Ethology and Sociobiology 14: 1-24.

Cameron C., S. Oskamp, and W. Sparks. 1978. Courtship American style: newspaper advertisements. Family Coordinator 26: 27-30.

Caso, L., A. Gnisci, A. Vrij, and S. Mann. 2005. Processes underlying deception: an empirical analysis of truth and lies when manipulating the stakes. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling 2 (3): 195-202.

Cook, Mark. 1970. Experiments on orientation and proxemics. Human Relations 23 (1): 61-76.

Cooper, L. 1976. Mirroring: One vehicle to organizational clarity. International Journal Of Social Psychiatry 22 (4): 288-295.

Chowdhary, U. 1988. Instructor’s attire as a biasing factor in students’ ratings of an instructor. Clothing & Textiles Research Journal 6 (2): 17-22.

Chartrand, T. L. and V. Jefferis. 2003. Consequences of automatic goal pursuit and the case of nonconscious mimicry. In J. P. Forgas, K. D. Williams and W. von Hippel (Eds.) Responding to the social world: implicit and explicit processes in social judgments and decisions (290-305). Philadelphia, Psychological Press.

Chartrand, T. L. and J. A. Bargh. 1999. The chameleon effect: the perception-behavior link and social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76: 893-910.

Cahoon, DD; Edmonds, EM 1989. Male-Female Estimates Of Opposite-Sex 1st Impressions Concerning Females Clothing Styles Bulletin of the psychonomic society. 27(3): 280-281.

Chaplin William F.; Phillips Jeffrey B; Brown Jonathan D.; Clanton Nancy R.; Stein Jennifer L.; 2000. Handshaking, gender, personality, and first impressions Journal of personality and social psychology. 79(1): 110-117.

Coreen Farris; Teresa A. Treat; Richard J. Viken; and Richard M. McFall. 2008. Perceptual Mechanisms That Characterize Gender Differences in Decoding Women’s Sexual Intent Psychological Science. 19(4):

Cunningham, M. R., Roberts, A. R., Barbee, A. P., Druen, P. B., & Wu, C. 1995. Their
ideas of beauty are, on the whole, the same as ours: Consistency and variability in the
cross-cultural perception of female physical attractiveness. Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology, 68: 261–279.

Cunningham, M. R. 1986. Measuring the physical in physical attractiveness: Quasiexperiments on the sociobiology of female facial beauty. Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology, 50: 925–935.

Carney, Dana R.; Hall, Judith A. LeBeau, Lavonia Smith Beliefs about the nonverbal expression of social power Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. 2005. 29(2):105.

Chang, Yanrong 2006. Nonverbal Communication in Friends.. Communication Teacher, 20(4): 97-99.

Carroll E. 1994. Innate and universal facial expressions: Evidence from developmental and cross-cultural research Izard, Psychological Bulletin. 115(2): 288-299.

Clements, A. M.; Rimrodt, S. L.; Abel, J. R.; Blankner, J. G.; Mostofsky, S. H.; Pekar, J. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Cutting, L. E. Sex Differences in Cerebral Laterality of Language and Visuospatial Processing. Brain and Language. 2006. 98 (2): 150-158.

Crusco, A. and C. Wetzel. 1984. The midas touch: the effects of interpersonal touch on restaurant tipping, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 10: 512–517.


Daniel, R. 1992. An effect of seating location on course achievement: Comment on Brooks and Rebeta. Environment and Behavior 24(3): 396-399.

Daigen, V. and J. G. Holmes. 2000. Don’t interrupt! A good rule for marriage. Personal Relationships 7 (2): 185-201.

Davidson, R. J. & Irwin, W. 1999. The functional neuroanatomy of emotion and affective style. Trends Cogn. Sci. 3: 11–21.

Davis 1978. Camera Eye-Contact by the Candidates in the Presidential Debates of 1976 Source: The journalism quarterly. 55 (3): 431 -437.

Darwin, C. 1965. The expression of the emotions in man and animals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Original work published 1872)

David Lambert. 2008. Body Language 101. Skyhorse publishing. New York, NY.
Denise Dellarosa Cummins. 1996. Dominance Hierarchies and the Evolution of Human Reasoning. Minds and machines. 6 (4): 463-480.

DePaulo, B. M., J. J. Lindsay, B. E. Malone, L. Muhlenbruck, K. Charlton, and H. Cooper. 2003. Cues to deception. Psychological Bulletin 129: 74-118.

DePaulo, B. M., & Kashy, D. A. (1998). Everyday lies in close and casual relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 74: 63–79.

DePaulo, B. M., Kashy, D. A., Kirkendol, S. E., Wyer, M. M., & Epstein, J. A. (1996). Lying in everyday life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 70: 979–995.

Dindia, K. 1987. The effects of sex of subject and sex of partner on interruptions. Human Communication Research. 13 (3): 345-371.

Dimitrus, J. and M. Mazzerella. 1998. Reading people: how to understand people and predict their behavior – anytime, anyplace. New York, Random House.

Davidio, F.M. Brown C.E. Heltman, K. Ellyson, S.L. and Keating, C.F. 1988. Power Displays between Women and Men in Discussion of Gender-linked Tasks: A Multichannel Study, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 55: 580-7.

Duncan, W.J., Smeltzer, L.R. & Leap, T.L. Humor and work: Applications of joking behavior to management. Journal of Management, 1990. 16: 255–78.

Duncan, S. Jr. 1972. Some signals and rules for taking speaking turns in conversation, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 23(2): 283-292.

Desmond Morris. Peoplewatching: The Desmond Morris Guide to Body Language. Published 2002 by Vintage

Dovidio JF, Ellyson SL, Keating CF, Heltman K, Brown CE. 1988. The relationship of social power to visual displays of dominance between men and women. Source: Journal of personality and social psychology. 54: 233-42.

Dilts, R.B., Grinder, J., Bandler, R., & DeLozier, J. 1979. Neuro-linguistic programming L Cupertino, CA: Meta Publications.

Doohan, E. 2007. Listening behaviors of married couples: An exploration of nonverbal presentation to a relational outsider. International Journal of Listening, 21 (1): 24-41.

Danielle Jackson, Erika Engstrom and Tara Emmers-Sommer. 2007. Think Leader, Think Male and Female: Sex vs. Seating Arrangement as Leadership Cues. Sex Roles. 57 (9/10): 713-723.


Elaad, E. 2003. Effects of feedback on the overestimated capacity to detect lies and the underestimated ability to tell lies. Applied Cognitive Psychology 17(3): 349-363.

Edelstein, R. S., T. L. Luten, P. Ekman, and G. S. Goodman. 2006. Detecting lies in children and adults. Law and Human Behavior 30(1): 1-10.

Edmonds, Ed M.; Cahoon, Delwin D.; Hudson, Elizabeth 1992. Male-female estimates of feminine assertiveness related to females’ clothing styles. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 30(2): 43-144.

Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. 1989. Human ethology. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.

Ekman, Paul and W. Friesen. 1969. “The repertoire of nonverbal behavior. Categories, origins, usage, and coding.” Semiotica (1): 49-98.

Ekman, Paul. 1994. Strong evidence for universals in facial expressions: A reply to Russell’s mistaken critique Psychological Bulletin. 115(2): 268-287.

Ekman, Paul. 1986. A new pan-cultural facial expression of emotion. Source: Motivation and Emotion Ekman. 10(2): 159-168.

Ekman, Paul and Friesen, W. V. 1987. Universals and cultural differences in the judgments of facial expressions of emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 53(4): 712-717.

Ekman. 1982. Felt, false, and miserable smiles. Journal of nonverbal behavior. 6(4): 238-258.

Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V. 1974. Detecting deception from the body or face
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 29(3): 288-298.

Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V. 1971. Constants across cultures in the face and emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 17(2): 124-129.

Ekman, Paul. 1972. Universals and cultural differences in facial expressions of emotion. In J. Cole (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 1971. 19: 207-282. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Ekman, Paul. 1996. Why Don’t We Catch Liars? 63(3):

Ekman, Paul; O’Sullivan, Maureen. 1991. Who can catch a liar? American Psychologist. Vol 46(9): 913-920.

Ekman, Paul; Davidson, Richard J and Friesen, Wallace V. 1990. The Duchenne smile: Emotional expression and brain physiology: II . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 58(2): 342-353.

Estow, S., J. P. Jamieson, and J. R. Yates. 2007. Self-monitoring and mimicry of positive and negative social behaviors. Journal of Research in Personality 41 (2): 425-433.

Ellsworth, Phoebe; Carlsmith, J Merrill. 1973. Eye contact and gaze aversion in an aggressive encounter. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 28(2): 280-292.

Eric Berne. Games People Play: The Basic Handbook of Transactional Analysis. Ballantine Books. 1996.


Firestone, Shulamith. 1977. The dialectic of sex: the case for feminist revolution. London: Cape.

Foddy, Margaret 1978. Patterns of Gaze in Cooperative and Competitive Negotiation
Human Relations. 31(11):925-938.

Fugita, Stephen S.; Hogrebe, Mark C.; Wexley, Kenneth N. 1980. Perceptions of Deception: Perceived Expertise in Detecting Deception, Successfulness of Deception and Nonverbal Cues. Personality And Social Psychology Bulletin. 6(4): 637-643.

Forsythe, S., M. F. Drake, and C. E. Cox. 1985. Influence of applicant’s dress on interviewer’s selection decisions. Journal of Applied Psychology 70 (2): 374-378.

Forsythe, S. M. 1990. Effect of applicant’s clothing on interviewer’s decision to hire.
Journal of Applied Social Psychology 20 (19, 1): 1579-1595.

Forsythe, S. M., M. F. Drake, and C. A. Cox Jr. 1984. Dress as an influence on the perceptions of management characteristics in women. Home Economics Research Journal 13 (2): 112-121

Forgas. J.P., O’Connor, K.V., and Morris, S.L. 1983. Smile and punishment: The effect of facial expression on responsibility attribution by groups and individuals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9: 587-596.

Fulcher, J. S. “Voluntary” facial expression in blind and seeing children. Archives of Psychology, 1942. 38: 272.

Frank, M.G; Ekman, P; Friesen, W. V. 1993. Behavior markers and reconcilability of the smile of enjoyment. Journal of personality and social sychology. 64 (1): 83-93.

Friesen, W. V. 1972. Cultural differences in facial expressions in a social situation: An experimental test of the concept of display rules. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, San Francisco.

Field, T. 2001. Touch. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Fatt, J. P. T. 1998. Nonverbal Communication and Business Success. Management Research News 21(4): 1-10.

Frank M.G. and Ekman P. 1997. The ability to detect deceit generalizes across different types of high-stake lies. Source: Journal of personality and social psychology. 72: 1429 -39

Fisher, J; Rytting, M and Heslin, R. 1976. Hands touching hands: affective and evaluative effects on interpersonal touch, Sociometry 39: 416–421.


Gangestad, S. W., J. A. Simpson, A. J. Cousins, C. E. Garver-Apgar, and P. N. Christensen. 2004. Women’s preferences for male behavioral displays change across the menstrual cycle. Psychological Science 15: 203-207.

Gangestad, S. W., R. Thornhill, and C. E. Garver-Apgar. 2005. Adaptations to ovulation: implications for sexual and social behavior. Current Directions in Psychological Science 14 (6): 312-316.

Gangestad, S.W., Thornhill, R., Garver, C., 2002. Changes in women’s sexual interests and their partners’ mate retention tactics across the menstrual cycle: Evidence for shifting conflicts of interest. Proc. R. Soc. London, B 269: 975–982.

Gangestad, S.W., Thornhill, R., Garver-Apgar, C.E., 2005a. Adaptations to ovulation. In: Buss, D.M. (Ed.), The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology. John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 344–371.

Gangestad, S.W., Thornhill, R., Garver-Apgar, C.E., 2005b. Women’s sexual interests across the ovulatory cycle depend on primary partner fluctuating asymmetry. Proc. R. Soc. London, B 272: 2023–2027.

Gallese, V., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L. & Rizzolatti, G., 1996. Action recognition in the premotor cortex. Brain, 119: 593-609.

Gallese, V. & Goldman, A., (1998). Mirror neurons and the simulation theory of mind-reading. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 12: 493-501.

Gordon, A. K. and A. G. Miller. 2000. Perspective differences in the construal of lies: is deception in the eye of the beholder? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 26 (1): 46-55.

Gurung, R. A. R. and C. J. Chrouser. 2007. Predicting objectification: do provocative clothing and observer characteristics matter? Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 57 (1-2): 91-99.

Greenberg, J. 1976. The role of seating position in group interaction: a review, with applications for group trainers. Group & Organization Management 1 (3): 310-327.

Gregory H. and M. Karinch. 2007. I can read you like a book: how to spot the messages and emotions people are really sending with their body language. Franklin Lakes, Career Press.

Grammer, K., & Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. 1990. The ritualisation of laughter. In W. Koch (Ed.), Naturalichkeit der Sprache un der Kultur: Acta colloquii 192–214.

Grimshaw, Gina M.; Bulman-Fleming, M. Barbara; Ngo, Cam 2004. A signal-detection analysis of sex differences in the perception of emotional faces. Brain and Cognition. Vol 54(3): 248-250.

Gilliam, Harold V. B.; Van Den Berg, Sjef. 1980. Different Levels of Eye Contact: Effects on Black and White College Students. Urban Education. 15 (1): 83-92.

Grinder, J., DeLozier, J. and Bandler, R., 1977 Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. Erickson, M.D. Vol. II

Goldman. 1980. Effect of Eye Contact and Distance on the Verbal Reinforcement of Attitude. The Journal of social psychology 111(1): 73 -78.

Greene 1979. Title: Need-Fulfillment and Consistency Theory: Relationships Between Self-Esteem and Eye Contact. Source: Western journal of speech communication. 43(2): 123 -133.

Galin, D. and Ornstein, R., 1974. Individual Differences in Cognitive Style – Reflective Eye Movements; Neuropsychologia, 12: 376-397.

Guéguen, N. and C. Jacob, 2005. The Effect of touch on tipping: an evaluation in a French’s bar, International Journal of Hospitality Management 24: 295–299.

Guéguen, N and C. Jacob 2006, Touch and consumer behavior: A new experimental evidence in a field setting, International Journal of Management 23: 24–33.

Graziano, Michael S.A. Cooke, Daylan, F. 2006. Pariieto-frontal Interactions, Personal Space, and Defensive Behavior. Neuropsychologia. 44: 845-59.

Glenn E. Weisfeld and Jody M. Beresford. 1982. Erectness of posture as an indicator of dominance or success in humans. Motivation and Emotion. 6(2):113 -131.


Hall. J.A. 1978. Gender effects in decoding nonverbal cues. Psychological Bulletin, 85: 845-857.

Hall. J.A. 1984. Nonverbal sex differences: Communication accuracy and expressive style. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Hall, J. A. 2006.Nonverbal Behavior, Status, and Gender: How Do We Understand Their Relations. Psychology of Women Quarterly; 30(4): 384-391.

Hall, Edward, T. 1959. The silent language. New York: Doubleday.

Hall, Edward,T.. The Silent Language, Greenwich, CT: Fawcett, 1959.

Hall, Edward, T. The Hidden Dimension, Garden City, NJ: Doubleday, 1966.

Hamel, R. F (1974). Female subjective and pupillary reactions to nude male and female figures. Journal of Psychology. 87: 171-175.

Halpern, D. F.; Camilla P. Benbow, David C. Geary, Ruben C. Gur, Janet Shibley Hyde, Morton Ann Gernsbacher. 2007. The science of sex differences in science and mathematics. Psychological science in the public interest. 8(1): 1-51.

Hatch, M.J. 1997 Irony and the social construction of contradiction in the humor of a management team. Organization Science. 8: 275–88.

Havlicek, J., S. C. Roberts, and J. Flegr. 2005. Women’s preference for dominant male odour: effects of menstrual cycle and relationship status. Biology Letters 1(3): 256-259.

Haselton, M. G., M. Mortezaie, E. G. Pillsworth, A. Bleske-rechek, and D. A. Frederick. 2007. Ovulatory shifts in human female ornamentation: near ovulation, women dress to impress. Hormones and Behavior. 51(1): 40-45.

Harper, Robert G., Arthur N. Wiens and Joseph D. Matarazzo. Nonverbal communication: The State of the Art. Wiley Series on Personality Processes. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1978.

Harrison, Neil A.; Wilson, C. Ellie; Critchley, Hugo D. 2007. Processing of observed pupil size modulates perception of sadness and predicts empathy. Emotion. 7(4): 724-729.

Henley, N., 1977. “Body Politics: power, sex and nonverbal communication, prentice hall, new jersey.

Hecht, M.A. and LaFrance, M. 1988. License or obligation to smile: The effect of power and gender on amount and type of smiling. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24: 1326-1336.

Hasegawa, T. and K. Sakaguchi. 2006. Person perception through gait information and target choice for sexual advances: comparison of likely targets in experiments and real life. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 30(2): 63-85.

Hess, E. H., & Polt, J. M. (1960). Pupil size as related to the interest value of visual stimuli. Science, 132: 349-350.

Hess, E. H. 1965. Attitude and pupil size. Scientific American, 212 (4): 46–54.

Hess, E. H. 1975. The role of pupil size in communication. Scientific American. 233(5): 110–119.

Hertenstein, Matthew J; Keltner, Dacher; App, Betsy; Bulleit, Brittany A; Jaskolka, Ariane R 2006. Touch Communicates Distinct Emotions. Emotion. 6(3): 528-533

Hediger, Heini 1955. Studies of the psychology and behaviour of captive animals in zoos and circuses. Butterworths Scientific Publications

Holdaway, S. Blue jokes: Humour in police work. In C. Powell & G.E.C. Paton (Eds),
Humour in society: Resistance and control. Houndsmills: Macmillan, 1988, 106–22.

Hermans, E. J., P. Putman, and J. van Honk. 2006. Testosterone administration reduces empathetic behavior: a facial mimicry study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 31(7): 859-866.

Hensley, W. E. 1982. Professor Proxemics: personality and job demands as factors of faculty office arrangement. Environment and Behavior 14(5): 581-591.

Hocking. 1985. Eye contact contrast effects in the employment interview. Communication research reports 2(1): 5-10.

Hornik, J 1992. Tactile stimulation and consumer response, Journal of Consumer Research 19: 449–458.

Hornik, J.1992. Effects of physical contact on customers’ shopping time and behavior, Marketing Letters. 49–55.

Howells, L. T. and S. W. Becker. 1962. Seating arrangement and leadership emergence.
The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 64(2): 148-150.


Irwin Silverman, Jean Choi, and Michael Peters. 2007. The hunter-gatherer theory of sex differences in spatial abilities: Data from 40 countries. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 36 (2): 261-268.


James A. Coan; Hillary S, Schaefer; and Richard J. Davidson. 2006. Lending a Hand. Social Regulation of the Neural Response to Threat. Association for Psychological Science

Jardin, R., and Martin, N. G. 1983. Spatial ability and throwing accuracy. Behavior Genetics. 13: 331–340.

Janisse, Michel Pierre. 1973. Pupil Size and Affect: A Critical Review of the Literature Since 1960. Canadian Psychologist Psychologie Canadienne. 14(4): 311-329.

James A. Russell, Naoto Suzuki and Noriko Ishida. 1993. Canadian, Greek, and Japanese freely produced emotion labels for facial expressions. Motivation and Emotion. 17(4): 337 -351

Jeffrey D. Fisher; Marvin Rytting; Richard Heslin. 1976. Hands Touching Hands: Affective and Evaluative Effects of an Interpersonal Touch. Sociometry, 39(4): 416-421.

Julius F. 1977. The body language of sex, power, and aggression. New York, M. Evans and Company Inc.

Joe Navarro. 2008. What Every BODY is Saying: An Ex-FBI Agent’s Guide to Speed-Reading People. William Morrow Paperbacks.

John F. Dpvidio, Karen Heltman, Clifford E. Brown, Steve L. Ellyson, Caroline F. Keating. 1988. Power Displays Between Women and Men in Discussions of Gender-

Joseph, R. 2000. The evolution of sex differences in language, sexuality, and visual-spatial skills. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 29(1): 35-66.


Kansaku, K., & Kitazawa, S. 2001. Imaging studies on sex divergences in the lateralization of language. Neuroscience Research. 41: 333–337.

Kaufman, D. and J. Mahoney. 1999 The effect of waitresses’ touch on alcohol consumption in dyads, The Journal of Social Psychology 139: 261–267.

Kawakami, Kiyobumi; Takai-Kawakami, Kiyoko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Kusaka, Tomiyo; Okai, Takashi. 2006. Origins of smile and laughter: a preliminary study. Early Human Development. 82 (1): 61.

Keltner, Dacher; Bonanno, George A. 1997. A study of laughter and dissociation: Distinct correlates of laughter and smiling during bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 73(4): 687-702.

Kellerman. 1989. Looking and loving: The effects of mutual gaze on feelings of romantic love. Journal of Research in Personality. 23(2): 145-161.

Keltner, D., Ekman, P., 2003. Expression of emotion. In: Davidson, R., Scherer, K., Goldsmith, H. (Eds.), Handbook of Affective Sciences. Oxford University Press, New York, 411–414.

Kelly, Janice R.; Murphy, Julie D.; Craig, Traci Y.; Driscoll, Denise M. 2005. The Effect of Nonverbal Behaviors Associated with Sexual Harassment Proclivity on Women’s Performance Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 53(9-10): 689-701.

Kendon, A. Some Functions of Gaze Direction in Social Interaction. Acta Psychologica. 1967. 32: 1-25.

Kendon, A. 1994. Do gestures communicate? A review. Research on Language and Social Intraction. 27(3): 175-200.

Klineberg, O. 1938. Emotional expression in Chinese literature. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 33: 517-520.

Klineberg, O. 1940. Social psychology. New York: Holt.

Kolakowski, D., & Malina, R. M. 1974. Spatial ability, throwing accuracy and man’s hunting heritage. Nature. 251: 410–412.

Krumhuber, E., & Kappas, A. (2005). Moving smiles: The role of dynamic components for the perception of the genuineness of smiles. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. 29: 3-24.

Kinsbourne, M., 1972. Eye and Head Turning Indicates Cerebral Lateralization; Science, 179: 539-541.

Kocel, K., et al.,1972. Lateral Eye Movement and Cognitive Mode; Psychon Sci. 27: 223-224.

Knackstedt, G., & Kleinke, C. L. (1991). Eye contact, gender, and personality judgments. Journal of Social Psychology, 131: 303-304.

Konopacki 1987. Eye Movement Betrays a Prospect’s Inner Feelings Source: Marketing news 21(10): 4.

Krumhuber, E ; Manstead, A.S.R; Kappas, A. 2007. Temporal Aspects of Facial Displays in Person and Expression Perception: The Effects of Smile Dynamics, Head-tilt, and Gender. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. 31: 39-56.

Krannich, C. R. and R. L. Krannich. 2000. Savvy interviewing. Manassas Par, Impact Publications.

Kneidinger, L. M.; Maple, T. L.; Tross, S. A. 2001. Touching behavior in sport: functional components, analysis of sex differences, and ethological considerations. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 25(1): 43-62.

Knapp, Mark. Nonverbal Communication in Human Interaction, New York: Holt,
Rinehart & Winston, 1992.

Kleinke, C. L. 1980. Interaction between gaze and legitimacy of request on compliance in a field setting. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 5(1): 3-12.


LaFrance, Marianne, Hecht, M.A., & Levy Paluck, E 2003. The contingent smile: A meta-analysis of sex differences in smiling. Psychological Bulletin, 129: 305-334.

LaFrance, Marianne. 1995. Why smiles generate leniency.; Hecht, Marvin A
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21: 207-14.

LaFrance, Marianne 1996. Why do women smile more than men? International Journal of Psychology. 31(3-4): 5042-5042.

LaFrance, Marianne. 2003. The Contingent Smile: A Meta-Analysis of Sex Differences in Smiling Source: Psychological bulletin. 129(2):305-334.

LaFrance, Marianne. 1979. Nonverbal synchrony and rapport: analysis by the cross-lag panel technique. Social Psychology Quarterly 42: 66-70.

LaFrance, Marianne. 1982. Posture mirroring and rapport. In M. Davis (Ed.) Interaction rhythms: periodicity in communicative behavior (279-298). New York, Human Sciences Press, Inc.

LaFrance, Marianne. and W. Ickes. 1981. Posture mirroring and interactional involvement: sex and sex typing effects. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 5: 139-154.

LaFrance, Marianne 2002. Smile Boycotts and Other Body Politics, Feminism & Psychology. 12 (3):319-323.

Lafrance, Marianne. Smile Boycotts and Other Body Politics. Feminism & Psychology. 2002. 12(3): 319-323.

Lakin, J. L., and T. L. Chartrand. 2003. Using non-conscious behavioral mimicry to create affiliation and rapport. Psychological Science 14 (4): 334-339.

Lakin, J. L. 2003. The chameleon effect as social glue: evidence for the evolutionary significance of non-conscious mimicry. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 27 (3): 145-162.

Lawson, Willow 2005. Humor’s Sexual Side. Psychology Today. New York. 38(5): 17-18.

Leeb. 2004. Here’s Looking at You, Kid! A Longitudinal Study of Perceived Gender Differences in Mutual Gaze Behavior in Young Infants Source: Sex Roles. 50(1-2): 1-14.

Leventhal, G. 1978, Sex and setting effects on seating arrangement. Journal of Psychology. 100: 21-26.

Levine, D. W., E. C. O’neal, S. G. Garwood, and P. J. Mcdonald. 1980. Classroom ecology: the effects of seating position on grades and participation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 6 (3): 409-412.

Lewis, David. 1999. The Secret Language Of Success. BBS Publishing Corporation.

Lurie, Alison. The Language of Clothes. (New York, 1981), 3-26.

Lott, D. F. and R. Sommer. 1967. Seating arrangements and status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 7 (1): 90-95.

Lorenz, K. On aggression. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1966.

Lorenz, K. 1965. Evolution and modification of behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lieberman, Joel D.; Sales, Bruce D. 2007. In-Court Observations of Nonverbal Behavior. Scientific jury selection. (pp. 125-142). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. ix, 261 pp.

Littlepage, Glenn E.; Whiteside, Harold D. 1983. The “Peripheral Cue Shift” Phenomenon: Influence of Facial Expression and Level of Commission on Attribution of Responsibility Personality And Social Psychology Bulletin, 9(2): 261-265.

Lynn et al., 1998 M. Lynn, J.M. Le and D. Sherwyn. 1998. Reach out and touch your customers, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quaterly 39: 60-65.


MacDonald, C., 2004. A Chuckle a Day Keeps the Doctor Away: Therapeutic Humor & Laughter. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services 42(3):18-25.

Mann, S., A. Vrij, and R. Bull. 2002. Suspects, lies, and videotape: an analysis of authentic high-stake liars. Law and Human Behavior 26 (3): 365-376.

Mann, S., A. Vrij, and R. Bull. 2004. Detecting true lies: police officers’ ability to detect suspects’ lies. Journal of Applied Psychology 89(1): 137-149.

Maddux, W. W., E. Mullen, and A. D. Galinsky. 2008. Chameleons bake bigger pies and take bigger pieces: strategic behavioral mimicry facilitates negotiation outcomes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44(2): 461-468.

Manstead, A. and A. Kappas. 2007. Temporal aspects of facial displays in person and expression perception: the effects of smile dynamics, head-tilt, and gender. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 31(1): 39-56.

Matsumoto. 1987. Cultural similarities and differences in the semantic dimensions of body postures. Source: Journal of nonverbal behavior. 11(3):166-179.

Martin, Rod A. 2001. Humor, laughter, and physical health: Methodological issues and research findings Psychological Bulletin. 127(4): 504-519.

Martin, S.E. 1978. Sexual politics in the workplace: The interactional world of policewomen. Symbolic Interaction. 1 (2): 44-60.

Martin, David John. 1997. Slaughtering a sacred cow: The eyebrow flash is not a universal social greeting. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 58(5-B): 2751.

McElroy, J. C., P. C. Morrow, and R. J. Ackerman. 1983. Personality and interior office design: exploring the accuracy of visitor attributions. Journal of Applied Psychology. 68 (3): 541-544.

McCaskey, M. B. 1979. The hidden messages managers send. Harvard Business Review, Boston. 57 (6): 135.

McAndrew. 1986. Arousal seeking and the maintenance of mutual gaze in same and mixed sex dyads Source: Journal of nonverbal behavior. 10(3):168-172.

McGhee, Paul E. 1984 Current American Psychological Research on Humor. Jahrbuche fur Internationale Germanistik 16(2): 37-57.

McClure, Erin B 2000. A meta-analytic review of sex differences in facial expression processing and their development in infants, children, and adolescents
Psychological Bulletin. 126(3): 424-453.

McClure, E.B. 2000. A meta- analytic review of sex differences in facial expression processing and their development in infants, children, and adolescents. Psychological Bulletin. 126: 424-453.

Mcguire, Michael T. 1982. Social Dominance Relationships in Male Vervet Monkeys: A Possible Model for the Study of Dominance Relationships in Human Political Systems.
International Political Science Review. 3(1): 11-32.

Mead, M. 1975. Review of “Darwin and facial expression.” Journal of Communication, 25: 209-213.

Mehrabian, A., Friar, J., 1969. Encoding of attitude by a seated communicator via posture and position cues. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 33: 330–336.

Mesquita, B., 2003. Emotions as dynamic cultural phenomena. In: Davidson, R., Scherer, K., Goldsmith, H. (Eds.), Handbook of Affective Sciences. Oxford University Press, New York, 871–890.

Miles, L. and V. Peace. 2006. Implicit behavioral mimicry: investigating the impact of group membership. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 30(3): 97-113.

Morrison, K., M. Ferrara, H. S. Park, T. R. Levine, and S. A. McCornack. 2002. How people really detect lies. Communication Monographs 69(2): 144.

Montello, D. R. 1988. Classroom seating location and its effect on course achievement, participation, and attitudes. Journal of Environmental Psychology 8(2): 149-157.

Morrow, P. C. and J. C. McElroy. 1981. Interior office design and visitor response: a constructive replication. Journal of Applied Psychology 66(5): 646-650.

Moore, M. M. and D. L. Butler. 1989. Predictive aspects of nonverbal courtship behavior in women. Semiotica 76(3/4): 205-215.

Moore, M. M. 2001. Flirting. In C. G. Waugh (Ed.) Let’s talk: A cognitive skills approach to interpersonal communication. Newark, Kendall-Hunt.

Moore, M. M. 1985. Nonverbal courtship patterns in women: context and consequences. Ethology and Sociobiology 64: 237-247.

Morris, T. L., J. Gorham, S. H. Cohen, and D. Huffman. 1996. Fashion in the classroom: effects of attire on student perceptions of instructors in college classes. Communication Education 45(2): 135.

Morris, Desmond. Peoplewatching. London: Vintage, 2002.

Moody, E. J., D. N. McIntosh, L. J. Mann, and K. R. Weisser. 2007. More than mere mimicry? The influence of emotion on rapid facial reactions to faces. Emotion. 7(2): 447-457.

Middlemist, R. D., E. S. Knowles, and C. F. Matter. 1976. Personal space invasions in the lavatory: suggestive evidence for arousal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 33(5): 541-546.

Mobbs, N.A. 1968. Eye-contact in Relation to Social Introversion-Extraversion. British Journal of Social Clinical Psychology 7: 305-306.

Mulac, A., Studley, L., Wiemann, J., & Bradac, J. 1987. Male/female gaze in same-sex
and mixed-sex dyads. Human Communication Research. 13: 323-343.

Miller, Patrick W. 2005. Body language in the classroom: communication is more than words, and it is important for teachers and administrators to understand the nonverbal messages they are sending and receiving in the classroom. Techniques. 80(8): 28.

Michelini, RL, Passalacqua, R., & Cusimano, J. 1976. Effects of seating arrangement on group participation. Journal of Social Psychology. 99: 179-186.


Norum, G. A., N. J. Russo, and R. Sommer. 1967. Seating patterns and group tasks. Psychology in the Schools 4(3): 276-280.

Natale, M., E. Entin, and J. Jaffe. 1979. Vocal interruptions in dyadic communication as a function of speech and social anxiety. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37: 865-878.

Natale, Michael. 1976. A Markovian model of adult gaze behavior. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. 5(1): 53-63.

Briton, Nancy J.; Hall, Judith A. 1995. Beliefs about female and male nonverbal communication. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 32(1): 79-90.

Nierenberg, G.I. 1983. Negotiating Strategies and Counterstrategies: How to Develop Win/Win Techniques. Management Review, 72: 48-49.

Norum, G.A., Russo, N.J., and Sommer, R. 1967. Seating patterns and group tasks. Source: Psychology in the schools. 4(3): 276-280.


Owren, Michael J.; Bachorowski, Jo-Anne 2003. Reconsidering the evolution of nonlinguistic communication: the case of laughter Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. 27(3): 183-200.


Patrington. 1997. NLP for Business Success: How to Master Neuro-Linguistic Programming. Management Research News. 20(8): 43.

Patterson, Miles L.; Montepare, Joann M. 2007. Nonverbal behavior in a global context dialogue questions and responses. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. 31(3): 167-168.

Panksepp, J. 1998. Affective Neuroscience: The Foundation of Human and Animal Emotions. Oxford Univ. Press, New York.

Panksepp, J., Burgdorf, J., “Laughing” rats and the evolutionary antecedents of human joy? Physiology & Behavior (2003) 79: 533-547.

Park, H. S., T. R. Levine, S. A. McCornack, K. Morrison, and M. Ferrara. 2002. How people really detect lies. Communication Monographs. 69: 144-157.

Parrill, F. and I. Kimbara. 2006. Seeing and hearing double: the influence of mimicry in speech and gesture on observers. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 30(4): 157-166.

Pease, Barbara and Allan Pease. 2006. The Definitive Book of Body Language Hardcover. Bantam.

Peluchette, J. V., K. Karl, and K. Rust. 2006. Dressing to impress: beliefs and attitudes regarding workplace attire. Journal of Business and Psychology 21(1): 45-63.

Peterson, Robin T. 2005. An Examination of the Relative Effectiveness of Training in Nonverbal Communication: Personal Selling Implications. Journal of Marketing Education. 27(2): 143-150.

Penton-Voak, I. S., D. I. Perrett, D. Castles, M. Burt, T. Kobayashi, and L. K. Murray. 1999. Female preference for male faces changes cyclically. Nature 399: 741-742.

Pillsworth, E. G., M. G. Haselton and D. M. Buss. 2004. Ovulatory shifts in female sexual desire. Journal of Sex Research. 41: 55-65.

Provine, Robert R. 2005. Yawning: The yawn is primal, unstoppable and contagious, revealing the evolutionary and neural basis of empathy and unconscious behavior. Source: American Scientist. 93(6): 532-540.

Provine, Robert R. 2005. Yawning. American Scientist. 2005. 93(6): 532-539

Provine, Robert R.. 2000. The laughing species. Natural History. 109(10): 72-76.

Provine, Robert R. 2000. Laugh and the world laughs with you. Scientific American. 283(6): 108-110.

Provine, Robert R. 2000. The science of laughter. Psychology Today. 33(6):

Provine, R. R. 1986. Yawning as a stereotyped action pattern and releasing stimulus. Ethology 72:109-122.

Provine, R. R. 1992. Contagious laughter: Laughter is a sufficient stimulus for laughs and smiles. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 30: 1- 4.

Provine, R. R. 1993. Laughter punctuates speech: Linguistic, social and gender contexts of laughter. Ethology 95: 291-298.

Provine, R. R., and K. R. Fischer. 1989. Laughing, smiling, and talking: Relation to sleeping and social context in humans. Ethology 83: 295-305.

Provine, R. R., and Y. L. Yong. 1991. Laughter: A stereotyped human vocalization. Ethology 89: 115-124.

Provine, R.R. Contagious yawning and laughing: Everyday imitation and mirror-like behavior. Behavioral and Brain Science. 28: 142.

Priest, RF; Thein, MT. 2003. Humor appreciation in marriage: Spousal similarity, assortative mating, and disaffection. Humor-international journal of humor research, 16(1): 63-78.

Phelps, F., Doherty-Sneddon, G., & Warnock Educational Psychology., 27, 91-107. (2006). Functional benefits of children’s gaze aversion during questioning. British Journal Developmental Psychology. 24: 577-588.

Puts, D.A. 2007. Men’s voices as dominance signals: Vocal fundamental and formant frequencies influence dominance attributions among men. Source: Evolution and human behavior 28(5): 340-344.

Puts, D.A. 2005. Mating context and menstrual phase affect women’s preference for male voice pitch. Evolution and Human Behavior 26: 388-397.


Quilliam, Susan. 2004. Body Language: Learn to read and use the body’s secrete signals. Firefly books Inc.


Raghubir, P. and A. Valenzuela. 2006. Center-of-inattention: position biases in decision-making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 99 (1): 66-80.

Rogers, W. T. and S. E. Jones. 1975. Effects of dominance tendencies on floor holding and interruption behavior in dyadic interaction. Human Communication Research I: 113-122.

Roger, D. B. and W. Nesshoever. 1987. Individual differences in dyadic conversational strategies: a further study. British Journal of Social Psychology 26: 247-754

Roger, D. B. and A. Schumacher. 1983. Effects of individual differences on dyadic conversational strategies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 45(3): 700-705.

Remland, M. S. and T. S. Jones 1995. Interpersonal Distance, Body Orientation, and Touch: Effects of Culture, Gender, and Age. Journal of Social Psychology 135(3): 281-297.

Rosenfeld, H., Breck, B., Smith, S., & Kehoe, S. 1984. Intimacy-mediators of the proximity-gaze compensation effect: Movement, conversational role, acquaintance, and gender. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. 8: 235-249.

Rosengrant, T., & McCroskey, J. 1975. The effects of sex and race on proxemic
behavior in an interview setting. The Southern Speech Communication Journal,
40: 408-420.

Russell, James A. 1995. Facial Expressions of Emotion: What Lies Beyond Minimal Universality? Psychological bulletin. 118(3): 379-391.

Russell, James A. 1994. Is There Universal Recognition of Emotion From Facial Expression? A Review of the Cross-Cultural Studies. Psychological Bulletin. 115(1): 102-141.

Rutter, D.C; D. C. Pennington, M. E. Dewey and J. Swain. 1984. Eye-contact as a chance product of individual looking: Implications for the intimacy model of Argyle and Dean. Source: Journal of nonverbal behavior. 8(4): 250-258.

Riess, M. and P. Rosenfeld. 1980. Seating preferences as nonverbal communication: a self-presentational analysis. Journal of Applied Communications Research 8(1): 22.

Richard Tessler and Lisa Sushelsky. 1978. Effects of eye contact and social status on the perception of a job applicant in an employment interviewing situation. Journal of Vocational Behavior 13(3): 338-347.

R. Stephen and R. Zweigenhaft. 1986. The effect on tipping of a waitress touching male and female customers. The Journal of Social Psychology 126 pp. 141–142.


Schleidt, 1980. Personal odor and nonverbal communication. Ethology and Sociobiology. 1(3): 225-231.

Scherer, K.R., Wallbott, H.G., Matsumoto, D., Kudoh, T., 1988. Emotional experience in cultural context: a comparison between Europe, Japan, and the United states. In: Scherer, K.R. (Ed.), Faces of Emotions. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.

Scherer,K.R., Johnstone,T., Klasmeyer,G., 2003. Vocal expression of emotion. In: Davidson,R., Scherer, K., Goldsmith, H. (Eds.), Handbook of Affective Sciences. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 433–456.

Sommer, R. 1965. Further studies of small group ecology. Sociometry 28: 337-348.

Sommer, R. 1967. Small group ecology. Psychological Bulletin 67(2): 145-152.

Sommer, R. 1967. Socifugal space. American Journal of Sociology 72(6): 654-659.

Sommer, R. 1959. Studies in personal space. Sociometry 22: 247-260.

Sommer, R. and R. Hugo. 1958. Social interaction on a geriatrics ward. International Journal of Social Psychiatry 4(2): 128-133.

Sommer, R. 1967. Classroom ecology. The Journal Of Applied Behavioral Science 3(4): 489-503.

Sporer, S. L. and B. Schwandt. 2007. Moderators of nonverbal indicators of deception: A meta-analytic synthesis. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 13: 1-34.

Stromwell, L. A., P. A. Granhag, and S. Landstrom. 2007. Children’s prepared and unprepared lies: can adults see through their strategies? Applied Cognitive Psychology 21 (4): 457-471.

Sitton, Sarah C; Griffin, Susan T. 1981. Detection of deception from clients’ eye contact patterns. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 28(3): 269-271.

Stephen, Jolly. 2000. Understanding body language: Birdwhistell’s theory of kinesics Corporate communications. 5(3): 133-139.

Simons, D.J., and Chabris, C.F. 1999. Gorillas in our midst: Sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events. Perception 28: 1059-1074.

Simonet, Versteeg, & Storie 2005 Dog Laughter: Recorded playback reduces stress related behavior in shelter dogs. 7th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (2005)

Stephenson, G. M. and B. K. Kniveton. 1978. Interpersonal and interparty exchange: an experimental study of the effect of seating position on the outcome of negotiations between teams representing parties in dispute. Human Relations 31(6): 555-566.

Sato, W. and S. Yoshikawa. 2007. Spontaneous facial mimicry in response to dynamic facial expressions. Cognition 104(1): 1-18

Simone, Pika; Nicoladis, Elena; Marentette, Paula, F. A cross-cultural study on the use of gestures: Evidence for cross-linguistic transfer? Bilingualism Language and Cognition. 9(3): 319 -327

Sandoval. 2001. Subtle skills for building rapport: using neuro-linguistic programming in the interview room. FBI law enforcement bulletin. 70(8): 1-635.

Skinner. 2003. Speaking the same language: the relevance of neuro-linguistic programming to effective marketing communications Source: Journal of Marketing Communications. 9(3): 177-192.

Silverman, I., & Eals, M. 1992. Sex differences in spatial abilities: Evolutionary theory and data. In J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture (pp. 531–549). New York: Oxford Press.

Smith, D. E., Gier, J. A., & Willis, F. N. 1982. Interpersonal touch and compliance with a marketing request. Basic and Applied Social Psychology. 3: 35-38.

Strodtbeck Fred L. and L. Harmon Hook 1961. The social dimensions of a twelve-man jury table. Sociometry. 24(4): 397-415.

Stephen Reysen. 2006. A New Predictor of Likeability: Laughter. North American journal of psychology. 8(2): 373-382.

Scharlemann, Jorn P. W., Eckel, Catherine C., Kacelnik, Alex, Wilson, Rick K.
2001. The value of a smile: Game theory with a human face. Journal of Economic Psychology. 22(5): 617-640.


Terrion, Jenepher Lennox; Ashforth, Blake E. 2002. From ‘I’ to ‘We’: The Role of Putdown Humor and Identity in the Development of a Temporary Group
Human Relations. 55(1): 55-88.

Tracy, Jessica L; Robins, Richard W 2008. The nonverbal expression of pride: Evidence
for cross-cultural recognition Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 94(3): 516-530.

Tombs, Selina; Silverman, Irwin 2004. Pupillometry: A sexual selection approach.
Evolution and Human Behavior. 25(4): 221-228.

Tosey, Paul; Mathison, Jane; Michelli, Dena. 2005. Mapping Transformative Learning: The Potential of Neuro-Linguistic. Journal Of Transformative Education. 3(2): 140-167.

Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang . 2002. Development of lying to conceal a transgression: Children’s control of expressive behaviour during verbal deception International Journal Of Behavioral Development. 26(5): 436-444.

Trice, H.M. and Beyer, J.M. 1993. The cultures of work organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Thornhill, R. and S. W. Gangestad. 1999. The scent of symmetry: a human pheromone that signals fitness? Evolution and Human Behavior 20: 175-201.

Thornhill, R., S. W. Gangestad, R. Miller, G. Scheyd, J. McCollough, and M. Franklin. 2003. MHC, symmetry and body scent attractiveness in men and women (Homo sapiens). Behavioral Ecology 14: 668-678.

Thornhill, R. and S. W. Gangestad. 2003. Evolutionary theory led to evidence for a male sex pheromone that signals symmetry. Psychological Inquiry 14 (3-4): 318-325.

Turner, L. H., K. Dindia, and J. C. Pearson. 1995. An investigation of female/male verbal behaviors in same-sex and mixed-sex conversations. Communication Reports 8: 86-96.


Urbaniak, Anthony. Nonverbal communication in selling. SuperVision[Burlington]. 2005. 66(6): 13-15.

Navarro, J. 2003. A four-domain model of detecting deception. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin June: 19-24.


Vargas, M. F. 1986. Louder Than Words: An Introduction to Non-Verbal Communication. Ames, Iowa State University Press.

van Baaren, R. B., R. W. Holland, K. Kawakami, and A. van Knippenberg. 2003. Mimicry and pro-social behavior. Psychological Science 15: 71-74.

Van Swol, L. M. 2003. The effects of nonverbal mirroring on perceived persuasiveness, agreement with an imitator, and reciprocity in a group discussion. Communication Research 30 (4): 461-480.

Van Swol, L. M. 2003. The effects of nonverbal mirroring on perceived persuasiveness, agreement with an imitator, and reciprocity in a group discussion. Communication Research 30 (4): 461.

Vrij, A. and G. R. Semin. 1996. Lie experts’ beliefs about nonverbal indicators of
deception. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 20: 65-80.

Vrij, A. 1997. Individual differences in hand movements during deception. Source: Journal of nonverbal behavior. 21: 87-102.

Vrij, A.. 2004. Why professionals fail to catch liars and how they can improve Source: Legal and Criminological Psychology. 9:159-181.

Vrij, A., S. Mann, and S. Kristen. 2007. Cues to deception and ability to detect lies as a function of police interview styles. Law and Human Behavior 31 (5): 499-518.


Watson, N. V., & Kimura, D. 1991. Nontrivial sex differences in throwing and intercepting: Relation to psychometrically-defined spatial functions. Personality and Individual Differences. 12: 375–385.

Watson KK, Matthews BJ, Allman JM 2007. Brain activation during sight gags and language-dependent humor. Cereb Cortex 17(2): 314–24.

West, C. and D. H. Zimmerman. 1987. Doing gender. Gender and Society I: 125-151.

Wood, John Andy 2006. NLP revisited: nonverbal communications and signals of trustworthiness. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management. 26(2): 197.

Walker. 1983 The expressive function of the eye flash. Journal of nonverbal behavior. 8(1): 3 -13.

Williams. 1993. Effects of Mutual Gaze and Touch on Attraction, Mood, and Cardiovascular Reactivity Source: Journal of Research in Personality. 27(2): 170-183.

Willis, F. N., & Hamm, H. K. 1980. The use of interpersonal touch in securing compliance. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. 5: 49-55.

Willis, F. 1966. Initial speaking distance as a function of the speaker’s relationship.
Psychonomic Science. 5: 221-222.

Wilson P, R. 1968. Perceptual distortion of height as a function of ascribed academic status. The Journal of social psychology. 74: 97-97.




Yeagley, Erin; Morling, Beth; Nelson, Maria 2007. Nonverbal zero-acquaintance accuracy of self-esteem, social dominance orientation, and satisfaction with life. Journal of Research in Personality. 41(5): 1099-1106.

Yee, N., Bailenson, J.N., Urbanek, M., Chang, F., Merget, D. 2007. The Unbearable Likeness of Being Digital: The Persistence of Nonverbal Social Norms in Online Virtual Environments. The Journal of CyberPsychology and Behavior. 10: 115-121.


Zajonc, R. B., P. K. Adelmann, S. T. Murphy, and P. M. Niedenthal. 1987. Convergence in the physical appearance of spouses. Motivation and Emotion 11 (4): 335-346.

Zald, D. H. The human amygdala and the emotional evaluation of sensory stimuli. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. 2003. 41: 88–123.

Zimmerman, D. H. and C. West. 1975. Sex roles, interruptions and silences in conversation. In B. Thorne and N. Henley (Eds) Language and sex: difference and dominance: 105-129. Rowley, Newbury House.

Zweigenhaft, R. L. 1976. Personal space in the faculty office: Desk placement and the student-faculty interaction. Journal of Applied Psychology 61 (4): 529-532.